Processing, Characteristics, and Potential Application of Red Palm Oil - A review


  • Kartika Okta Purnama IPB
  • Dwi Setyaningsih
  • Erliza Hambali
  • Darmono Taniwiryono



carotene, margarine, phytonutrient, tocopherol, tocotrienol


Crude palm oil (CPO) is produced from the extraction process of palm fruit pulp. Palm oil contains essential components in the form of triglycerides, mostly as fatty acids, namely palmitic acid, oleic, and linoleic. However, palm oil also contains minor phytonutrients, such as carotene, tocopherol, and tocotrienol. Palm oil has been widely used in the food and non-food industries. As a raw material in various products, palm oil undergoes a refinery process to remove unlike free fatty acids (FFA), odors, and colors (reddish to bright yellow). In this process, phytonutrients are degraded and damaged so that the content becomes very low. Phytonutrients in the CPO has not been fully utilized their benefits for human health. One of the palm oil products that contain high phytonutrient compounds is red palm oil. There are two types of red palm oil, namely virgin red palm oil (VRPO) and red palm oil derived from CPO (RPO). VRPO is produced from direct extraction of oil palm fruit, while RPO is produced from the neutralization of CPO and deodorization at low temperatures to reduce FFA levels. Both of these products contain high phytonutrients, such as carotene, tocopherol, and tocotrienol. This paper reviews several studies on the processing, characteristics, and potential use of red palm oil in food and non-food products. The application of red palm oil in margarine as a specific food product has the potential to be further studied.


Download data is not yet available.


Albuquerque T.G., H.S. Costa, M.A. Silva. 2018. Are chloropropanols and glycidyl fatty acid esters a matter of concern in palm oil?. Trends in Food Science and Technology. Doi: 10.1016/j.tifs.2019.01.005.
Ali F.S., R. Shamsudin, R. Yunus. 2014. The effect of storage time of chopped oil palm fruit bunches on the palm oil quality. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia. 2: 165-172. Doi: 10.1016/j.aaspro.2014.11.024
Al-Saqer J.M., J.S. Sidhu, S.N. Al-Hooti, H.A. Al-Amiri, A.Al-Othman, L. Al-Haji, N. Ahmed, I.B. Mansour, J. Minal. 2004. Developing functional foods using red palm olein. IV. Tocopherols and tocotrienols. Food Chemistry. 85: 579-583. Doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2003.08.003.
Alyas, S.A., A. Abdullah, and N.A. Idris. 2006. Changes of ?-carotene content during heating of red palm olein. Journal of Palm Oil Research. Special Issue-April, 2006. P. 99-102.
Andarwulan N., D.R. Adawiyah, N. Wulandari, P. Hariyadi, R.N. Triana, A.R. Affandi, R.C. Nur, S. Tjahjadi, M.F. Ellen, 2014. Aplikasi margarin minyak sawit merah pada produk pound cake dan roti manis. Prosiding Seminar Hasil-Hasil PPM IPB. 1: 192-206.
Ariffin A.A., H.M. Ghazali, P. Kavousi. 2014. Validation of an HPLC method for the determination of hydroxymethylfurfural in crude palm oil. Food Chemistry. 154: 102-107. Doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.12.082.
Astuti S.D., N. Andarwulan, P. Hariyadi. 2010. Formulasi dan karakterisasi gel minyak sawit (palm oil gel) kaya karotenoid sebagai ingredient pangan fungsional.
Ayeleso, A.O. O.O. Oguntibeju and N.L. Brooks. 2012. Effects of dietary intake of red palm oil on fatty acid composition and lipid profiles in male Wistar rats. African Journal of Biotechnology. 11(33): 8275-8279.
Ayustaningwarno F. 2012. Proses pengolahan dan aplikasi minyak sawit merah pada industri pangan. Vitasphere. 2: 1-11.
Azlan A., K.N. Prasad, H.E. Khoo. N. Abdul-Aziz, A. Mohamad, A. Ismail, Z. Amom. 2010. Comparison of fatty acids, vitamin E, and physicochemical properties of Canarium odontophyllum Miq. (dabai), olive, and palm oils. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 23: 772-776. Doi: 10.1016/j.jfca.2010.03.026.
Azmi R.A., P.S. Goh, A.F. Ismail, W.J. Lau, B.C. Ng, N.H. Othman, A.M. Noor, M.S.A. Yusoff. 2015. Deacidification of crude palm oil using PVA-crosslinked PVDF membrane. Journal of Food Engineering. 166: 165-173. Doi: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2015.06.001.
Badmus G.A., N.A. Adeyemi, O.K. Owolarafe. 2005. Performance evaluation of an oil palm fruit screen. Journal of Food Engineering. 69:173-176. Doi: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2004.08.011.
Bahurmiz O.M., and W.K. Ng. 2007. Effect of dietary palm oil source on growth, tissue fatty acid composition, and nutrient digestibility of red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis sp., raised from stocking to marketable size. Aquaculture. 262: 382-392. Doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.11.023.
Budiyanto, D. Silsia, Z. Efendi, R. Janika.2010. Perubahan kandungan ?-karoten, asam lemak bebas dan bilangan peroksida minyak sawit merah selama pemanasan. Agritech. 30(2).
Cheng S.F., M.Nor L., C.H. Chuah. 2011. Microwave pretreatment: a clean and dry method for palm oil production. Industrial Crops and Products. 34: 967-971. Doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2011.03.002.
Choo. Y.M., H.L.L. Nang, M.A. Ngan, and Y. Basiron. 2003. Extraction of palm vitamin E, phytosterol, and squalene from palm oil. The US. Patent 20050250953A1.
Codex Alimentarius. 2001. Codex Standard for named vegetable oils. Codex Stan 210-1999. Volume 8. 2001.
Cukalovic A., J.C.M. Monbaliu, Y. Eeckhout, C. Echim, R. Verhe, G. Heynderickx, C.V. Stevens. 2013. Development, optimization and scale up of biodiesel production from crude palm oil and effective use in developing countries. Biomasss and Bionergy. 56: 62-69. Doi: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2013.04.015.
Davarnejad R., K.M. Kassim, A. Zainal, S.A. Sata. 2008. Supercritical fluid extraction of ?-carotene from crude palm oil using CO2. Journal of Food Engineering. 89: 472-478. Doi: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2008.05.032.
Dwiyanti H., H. Riyadi, Rimbawan, E. Damayanthi, A. Sulaeman, E. Handharyani. 2013. Efek pemberian gula kelapa yang diperkaya minyak sawit merah terhadap peningkatan berat badan dan kadar retinol serum tikus defisiensi vitamin A. Penelitian Gizi dan Makanan. 36(1): 73-81.
El-Hadad N.N.M., M.M. Youssef, M.H. Abd El-Aal, H.H. Abou-Gharbia. 2011. The utilization of red palm olein in formulating functional chocolate spread. Food Chemistry. 124: 285-290. Doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.06.034.
Elisabeth, J.E. 2009. Pengalaman Industri Kelapa Sawit dalam Diversifikasi Produk Olahan Hilir. Prosiding Pertemuan Teknis Kelapa Sawit 2009. Jakarta Convention Centre 28 – 30 Mei 2009. Hal. 95 – 103.
Hambali E, AI Sutanto, M Rivai, A Suryani, 2019. Teknologi pengolahan CPO dan produk turunannya. IPB Press. Bogor. Indonesia.
Hasibuan, H. A. 2012. Kajian Mutu dan Karakteristik Minyak Sawit Indonesia serta Produk Fraksinasinya. Jurnal Standardisasi, 14, 13-21.
Hasibuan, H.A., dan D. Siahaan. 2013. Review standar minyak goring sawit diperkaya karoten terkait fortifikasi vitamin A sebagai revisi SNI 01-3741-2002. Jurnal Standarisasi. 16(1): 65-76.
Hasibuan, H.A., dan D. Siahaan. 2014. Review Standar Minyak Goreng Sawit Diperkaya Karoten Terkait Fortifikasi Vitamin A Sebagai Revisi SNI 031-3741-2002. Jurnal Standardisasi, Majalah Ilmiah Standardisasi. 16: 65-76.
Hasibuan, H.A. dan A.P. Hardika. 2015. Formulasi margarin dan cokelat tabor berbahan minyak sawit dan minyak inti sawit menjadi produk olesan untuk roti tawar. Warta IHP/ Journal of Agro-based Industry. 32 (2): 45-50.
Hasibuan, H.A. 2016a. Pengaruh Penundaan Waktu Pengolahan Buah Sawit Terhadap Berat, Rendemen Crude Palm Oil (CPO) & Kernel Serta Mutu CPO. Warta Pusat Penelitian Kelapa Sawit. 20 (1): 27-36.
Hasibuan, H.A., 2016b. Retensi Karoten dan Retinol Palmitat pada Minyak Goreng dan Produk Gorengannya. Jurnal Penelitian Kelapa Sawit. 24(3): 147-159.
Hasibuan H.A. dan Ijah. 2018a. Peningkatan kesukaan minyak sawit merah dengan penambahan minyak nabati atau flavor dan stabilitasnya dalam penggorengan berulang. Jurnal Penelitian Kelapa Sawit. 26(1): 1-9.
Hasibuan H.A. dan R. Meilano. 2018b. Penggunaan minyak sawit merah dalam pembuatan sambal cabai merah tumis. Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian. 19(2): 95-106.
Hasibuan H.A., A. Akram, P. Putri, E.C. Mentari, B.T. Rangkuti. 2018c. Pembuatan margarin dan baking shortening berbasis minyak sawit merah dan aplikasinya dalam produk bakery. Agritech. 38(4): 353-363.
Hasrini R.F., Sugiyono, P. Hariyadi, N. Andarwulan. 2009. Interesterifikasi enzimatik dengan lipase pada campuran minyak sawit merah dan minyak kelapa untuk menghasilkan bahan baku spreads kaya ?-karoten. Warta IHP/ Journal of Agro-Based Industry. 26(2): 25-36.
Julita V dan E. Damayanti. 2002. Substitusi minyak sawit merah dan tepung tempe sebagai sumber vitamin A pada produk cookies. Sagu. 1(1): 27-35.
Lee W.J., C.P. Tan, R. Sulaiman, R.L. Smith Jr., G.H. Chong. 2018. Microencapsulation of red palm oil as an oil-in-water emulsion with supercritical carbon dioxide solution-enhanced dispersion. Journal of Food Engineering. 222: 100-109. Doi: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2017.11.011.
Loi C.C., H.C. Boo, A.S. Mohammed, A.A. Ariffin. 2011. A high-performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of furfural in crude palm oil. Food Chemistry. 128: 223-226. Doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.12.108.
Makky M. and P. Soni. 2013. Development of an automatic grading machine for oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) based on machine vision. Computers and electronics in Agriculture. 93: 129-139. Doi: 10.1016/j.compag.2013.02.008.
Makky M. and P. Soni. 2014. In situ quality assessment of intact oil palm fresh fruit bunches using rapid portable non-contact and non-destructive approach. Journal of Food Engineering. 120: 248-259. Doi: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2013.08.011.
Manorama, K. 2014. The potential use of red palm oil in combating vitamin A deficiency in India. Indian Journal of Community Health. 26(1): 45-53.
Mas’ud F, T.R. Muchtadi, P. Hariyadi, T. Haryati. 2008. Optimasi proses deasidifikasi minyak sawit untuk meminimalkan kerusakan karotenoid dalam pemurnian minyak sawit (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq). Forum Pascasarjana. 31(1): 25-36.
Mba O.I., M.J. Dumont, M. Ngadi. 2015. Palm oil: Processing, characterization, and utilization in the food industry- a review. Food BioScience. 10: 26-41. Doi : 10.1016/j.fbio.2015.01.003.
Mba O.I., M.J. Dumont, M. Ngadi. 2017. Thermostability and degradation kinetics of tocochromanols and carotenoids in palm oil, canola oil, and their blends during deep-fat frying. LWT-Food Science and Technology. 82: 131-138. Doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2017.04.027.
Mba OI, M. Dumoni, M. Ngadi. 2018. Characterization of tocopherols, tocotrienols and total carotenoids in deep-fat fried French fries. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 69: 78-86.
Mohamad W.A.F.W., R. Buckow, M. Augustin, D. McNaughton. 2017. In situ quantification of ?-carotene partitioning in oil-in-water emulsions by confocal Raman microscopy. Food Chemistry. 233: 197-203. Doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.04.086.
Mozzon M., D. Pacetti, P. Lucci, M. Balzano, N.G. Frega. 2013. Crude palm oil from interspecific hybrid Elaeis oleifera x Elaeis guineensis : fatty acid region distribution and molecular species of glycerides. Food Chemistry. 141: 245-252. Doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.03.016.
Mursalin, Surhaini, A. Yulia. 2014. Stabilitas termal minuman emulsi dari pekatan karoten minyak sawit merah selama penyimpanan. Konversi. 3(1).
Musa I., H. Khaza’ai, M.S.A. Mutalib, F. Yusuf. 2017. Effects of oil palm tocotrienol rich fraction on the viability and morphology of astrocytes injured with glutamate. Food bioscience. 168-177. Doi: /10.1016/j.fbio.2017.10.005.
Mustapa A.N., Z.A. Manan, C.Y.M. Azizi, W.B. Setianto, A.K.M. Omar. 2011. Extraction of ?-carotenes from palm oil mesocarp using sub-critical R134a. Food Chemistry. 125: 262-267. Doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.08.042.
Neo Y.P., A. Arifin, C.P. Tan, Y.A. Tan. 2010. Phenolic acid analysis and antioxidant activity assessment of oil palm (E. guineensis) fruit extracts. Food Chemistry. 122: 353-359. Doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.02.046.
Ng W.K., P.K. Lim, P.L. Boey. 2003. Dietary lipid and palm oil source affect growth, fatty acid composition, and muscle ?-tocopherol concentration of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Aquaculture. 215: 229-243.
Oseni K., Owolarafe, Michael O., Faborode. Obafemi O. Ajibola. 2002. Comparative evaluation of the digester-screw press and a hand-operated hydraulic press for palm fruit processing. Journal of Food Engineering. 52: 249-255.
Phoon K.Y., H.S. Ng, R. Zakaria, H.S. Yim, M.N. Mokhtar. 2018. Enrichment of minor components from crude palm oil and palm-pressed mesocarp fiber oil via sequential adsorption-desorption strategy. Industrial Crops and Products. 113: 187-195. Doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2018.01.039.
Pootao S. and K. Kanjanapongkul. 2016. Effects of ohmic pretreatment on crude palm oil yield and key qualities. Journal of Food Engineering. 190: 94-100. Doi: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2016.06.021.
Rashid N.A., N.A.M. Rosely, M.A.M. Noor, A. Shamsuddin, M.K.A. Hamid, K.A. Ibrahim. 2017. Forecasting of refined palm oil quality using principal component regression. Energy Procedia. 142: 2977-2982. Doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2017.12.364.
Reputra J., P. Hariyadi, N. Andarwulan. 2015. Penggunaan minyak sawit merah untuk pembuatan lemak bubuk kaya ?-karoten melalui proses pendinginan semprot. Agritech. 35(4).
Ribeiro J.A.A., E.S. Almeida, B.A.D. Neto, P.V. Abdelnur, S. Monteiro. 2018. Identification of carotenoid isomers in crude and bleached palm oils by mass spectrometry. LWT-Food Science and Technology. 89: 631-637. Doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2017.11.039.
Rice, A.L. and Burns, J.B. 2010. Moving from efficacy to effectiveness: red palm oil’s role in preventing vitamin A deficiency. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 29: 302S-313S.
Riyadi A.H., T.R. Muchtadi, N. Andarwulan, T. Haryati. 2016. Pilot plant study of red palm oil deodorization using moderate temperature. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia. 9: 209-216. Doi: 10.1016/j.aaspro.2016.02.129.
Robiyansyah, A.S. Zuidar, S. Hidayati. 2017. Pemanfaatan minyak sawit merah dalam pembuatan biscuit kacang kaya beta karoten. Jurnal Teknologi Industri dan Hasil Pertanian. 22(1).
Rutz J.K., C.D. Borges, R.C. Zambiazi, M.M.C. Cardozo, L.S. Kuck, C.P.Z. Norena. 2017. Microencapsulation of palm oil by complex coacervation for application in food systems. Food Chemistry. 220: 59-66. Doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.09.194.
Saeed O.M.B., S. Sankaran, A.R.M. Shariff, H.Z.M. Shafri, R. Ehsani, M.S. Alfatni, M.H.M. Hazir. 2012. Classification of oil palm fresh fruit bunches based on their maturity using a portable four-band sensor system. Computers and electronics in agriculture. 82: 55-60. Doi: 10.1016/j.compag.2011.12.010.
Sathasivam T., S. Muniyandy, L.H. Chuah, P. Janarthanan. 2018. Encapsulation of red palm oil in carboxymethyl sago cellulose beads by emulsification and vibration technology: physicochemical characterization and in vitro digestion. Journal of Food Engineering. 231: 10-21. Doi: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2018.03.008.
Schex R., V.M. Lieb, V.M.Jimenez, P. Esquivel. R.M. Schweigert, R. Carle, C.B. Steingass. 2018. HPLC-DAD-APCI/ESI-MSn analysis of carotenoids and ?-tocopherol in Costa Rican Acrocomia aculaeata fruits of varying maturity stages. Food Research International. 105: 645-653. Doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.11.041.
Silva S.M., K.A. Sampaio, R. Ceriani, R. Verhe, C. Stevens, W.De Greyt. A.J.A. Meirelles. 2014. Effect of type of bleaching earth on the final color of refined palm oil. LWT-Food Science and Technology. 59: 1258-1264. Doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2014.05.028.
Sinaga A.G.S., D. Siahaan, K.R. Sinaga. 2018. Potensi minyak sawit merah dan karotenoid sebagai suplemen antioksidan dalam pengujian toleransi glukosa pada tikus putih (Preliminary Study). Seminar Ilmiah Nasional USU-64: 251-256.
Sulihatimarsyila A.W.N., H.L.N. Lau, K.M. Nabilah. I.N. Azreena. 2019. The refining process for the production of refined palm-pressed fiber oil. Industrial Crops and Products. 129: 488-494. Doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2018.12.034.
Sumarna D., L.S. Wake, H. SUprapto. 2017. Studi karakteristik minyak sawit merah dari pengolahan konvensional CPO (Crude palm oil). Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Mulawarman. 12(2): 35-38.
Tan C.H., H.M. Ghazali, A. Kuntom, C.P. Tan, A.A. Arifin. 2009. Extraction and physicochemical properties of low free fatty acid crude palm oil. Food Chemistry. 113: 645-650. Doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.07.052.
Tres A., C.R. Samblas, G. van der Veer, S.M. van Ruth. 2013. Geographical provenance of palm oil by fatty acid and volatile compound fingerprinting techniques. Food Chemistry. 137: 142-150. Doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.09.094.
Umerie S.C., A.S. Ogbuagu, J.O. Ogbuagu. 2004. Stabilization of palm oils by using Ficus exasperate leaves in local processing methods. Bioresource Technology. 94: 307-310. Doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2004.01.014.
Wenten I.G., A.V. Victoria, G. Tanukusuma, K. Khoiruddin. 2019. Simultaneous clarification and dehydration of crude palm oil using superhydrophobic polypropylene membrane. Journal of Food Engineering. 248: 23-27. Doi: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2018.12.010.
Yi J., M.L. Andersen, L.H. Skibsted. 2011. Interactions between tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids during autoxidation of mixed palm olein and fish oil. Food Chemistry. 127: 1792-1797. Doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.02.061.
Yuliasari S., D. Fardiaz, N. Andarwulan, S. Yuliani. 2016. Karakteristik enkapsulat minyak sawit merah dengan pengayaan ?-karoten. Informatika Pertanian. 25(1): 107-116.
Zahrina I., M. Nasikin, E. Krisanti, K. Mulia. 2018. Deacidification of palm oil using betaine monohydrate-based natural deep eutectic solvents. Food Chemistry. 240: 490-495. Doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.07.132.




How to Cite

Purnama, K. O., Setyaningsih, D., Hambali, E., & Taniwiryono, D. (2020). Processing, Characteristics, and Potential Application of Red Palm Oil - A review. International Journal of Oil Palm, 3(2), 40–55.




Most read articles by the same author(s)